Personal & Organizational Ethics
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Personal & Organizational Ethics
In an organization, the employees are bound by the rules of the organization and the laws of the land. The two should be in application at any point of time, and there should be no fear whatsoever while demonstrating such obligations. It is however unimportant to note that all organizations have a moral right, responsibility, and authority to protect the moral standards required. The following is an illustration of various issues in organizational ethics why it is important and role of all organizations to maintain high level of moral standards.
Business ethics can be defined as the idea in all businesses and the principles that businesses adheres to the daily dealings and activities of that particular business with the world. This may include the individual level or at the corporate levels. The ethics in a particular business are therefore diverse and they do not only apply in the way that particular business operates in interacting with just world but also at how the business interact with an individual. The business should therefore take strict measures in ensuring that a part from just making money and huge profits, the interaction with the rest of the people and customers are important for such businesses to continue making such profits and stay in the market.
Ethics in Business
Some of the issues, which are recognized to be always in contention when it comes to ethics in business and organization, concern the moral obligation. Therefore, one of the principles which is in application in regard to this is the Moral Principle which argues that an employee has a moral obligation to report any wrong doing in the organization and when he or she feels that there is something amiss in the organization (Carroll & Buchholtz, 2008). If the employee fails to do so, his or her conscience would be at longer heads and it is impossible to rest until he or she finds that the action has been noted without his or her involvement.
However, there are also other arguments for the objection of ethics in business. Some people feel that if every employee is given the opportunity to guard the ethical manner in which an organization operates, it can result into huge losses to the organization that might not be desirable either. For example in a case in which a company acquires very expensive equipments or manufacture very expensive equipment but due to failure or errors in the test procedures, the company realizes that they can serve the purpose but have certain limitations. In this way, if the company decides to recall all its products, it will realize massive losses that are not desirable. However, it is a general principle that high ethical standards have to be maintained for an organization to stay in business.
Probability that a Vehicle Would Be Involved In a Burn Death
The probability that a vehicle would be involved in burnt deaths is the number of burn deaths divided by the total number of cars and trucks sold. This is calculated as:
Number of burn deaths; 180
Total number of trucks sold; 180 + 180 + 2, 100 = 2460
Probability = 180/2460 = 0.0732.
This figure shows that the cars are likely to cause death at 7% probability. This means that if they manufacture 100 cars, the 7 cars amongst the 100 cars are likely to cause death. In the view of these figures, in my opinion, the problem is not the amount of investment that this company has invested in the car business. The probability mentioned here shows the capacity of ford to manufacture burnt proof cars at 93%. It therefore follows that there efficiency is very low and what they have to do is to improve their processes so that they increase their efficiency and hence reduce the number of burnt cars. Reducing the number of cars only has the effect of reducing the number of burnt cars relative to the cost of total cars but do not reduce the probability.
Differences between Capitalist, Socialist, Fairness, and Libertarian notions of justice
In the business of today, there are certain elements or characters in the market especially in the private sectors whose policies are focused on making profits than any other thing in business (Carroll & Buchholtz, 2008). This is because the owners of the business have full control and because of the lack of government involvement to check these policies. This often results to unfair wage practices and exploitation of labor among other unethical vices. However, capitalism often ensures that the organization receives the highest profits possible so far but do not consider the moral aspect. In socialist justice, the organizations are controlled by the government and do not just put profit at the fore front of their operations but looks into other factors that interact to ensure the organization achieves its goals. The major concerns here are the demands of the people, their upliftment as well as their wellbeing. Unlike capitalism, any economic benefits in socialist justice is often weighed all round and both the economic benefits and the hazards are considered hence the workers are better of in this system (Carroll & Buchholtz, 2008).
Libertarian justice looks at ensuring that the inequality is eliminated and hence a proper justice is ensured at the end. It focuses on the basic rights of all the individuals concerned and strives to strike a deal with both the state and the private sector (Carroll & Buchholtz, 2008). This results to equal blending which ensures that both parties; the government and the private sector receive equal contribution and control. This is very important for the individuals since it focuses on the basic rights of these individuals. In these contexts, the freedom of capitalism as well as the freedom of socialists’ society is equalized.
Infant formula in Third World
It is not only unethical but also illegal to sell a product to customers when in your own opinion, you are much aware that the product that you are selling, manufacturing, marketing, promoting or distributing is not going to serve the purpose for which it was designed for (Carroll & Buchholtz, 2008). It is also unethical for the manufactures to let non-conformers to leave the manufacturing area and go to the market just because they want to make profits. In view of that, it is unethical to sell products that would result to malnutrition in third world countries. However, the governments in the third world countries also have to control the kind and types of goods at the port and it has to ensure that those products meet the set standards of that country hence they are also to blame for this type of malnutrition.
Public and Internal Policies That Might Have Changed GE's Moral Climate
There are legal and ethical implications that are involved concerning restoration of morality in an organization pertaining the government and the employee themselves (Carroll & Buchholtz, 2008). In our case, this company is seen to go contrary to both the principles and culture of morality. However, certain companies and organization leaders categorically says that if anyone was to report him to the authorities for going contrary to what is set in the organization, he can as well reiterate and punish the person. This is debatable and the contention is as to what levels the employees can report one another to the authorities in the case where they have noted their colleagues are on the wrong side.
Employee has all the rights to report his or her employer to the authorities especially bearing in mind that he or she is part of the whole organization or an entity to it (Carroll & Buchholtz, 2008). To this end, we can see the two sides of disagreement pertaining this and one is on the moral principle of the organizational employees as discussed above. However, the employees as well are responsible for anything that befalls their brothers and sisters in the organization. To this end, an employee can protect his or her colleague in the organization on the basis that he or she may need the person again in some other circumstances as well as protecting others in other nations. This should be enforced by the government and the government officials should play their part in controlling capitalism in the private sector.
Difference between Private Costs and Social Costs
Private costs are the costs that are incurred by the private investors in the process of production of goods and services. It means what it takes an organization to offer a service or manufacture a product. On the other hand, social costs are the costs that result on the business environment because of such business activities. Private cost should always be equal to the social costs and any time there is a difference it means that one side is benefiting at the expense of the other. It is this inequality mentioned early that libertarian tries to equate.
Why People are not Good at Estimating Probability
This is because people would always want to make as much profit as possible without considering the ethical part or the negative effects of such environment. Creating wealth is faster in capitalist societies because they do not consider the impact on the environment (Carroll & Buchholtz, 2008). In this way, they are able to make many profits at the expense of the society. People want to make huge profits in their businesses despite the hazardous effect of such businesses on the environment. In a way low standard commodities are produced hence results into lack of consumer protection.
Why Employers should Care about their Employees
The role of motivation in an organization’s success is very important as this ensures that the motivated employee continues to excel in his field. Creating a work condition that allows a balance between the work and ones personal life has been found to motivate the employees (Carroll & Buchholtz, 2008). The employees also have basic wants such as those of monetary and recognition. These really translate into drive that motivates the specific behaviors of the employees in an attempt to work better. It also enable the employees to feel as if they own the organization and will not have problems if asked to work for extra hours if there is need to do so. Managers should therefore ensure that the incentive systems are better and motivate the employees. For example, good pay and other allowances or overtime pay for extra work done will encourage workers and motivate them.
Case Study One
Moral issues involved in Mr. Vandivier's Decision
In view of the above discussions on organization ethics, it is clear that there was a moral issue involved in the final draft of the report by Vandivier. This is because he was very much aware of the results of the other tests that were done and the tests proved that the brakes did not meet the minimum standards that are required in accordance to the law. Since Vandivier was aware of the inefficiency in the brakes, it is not only unethical but also illegal to have authorized in her report the use of those breaks (Carroll & Buchholtz, 2008).
Case study two
Moral Duties that Johns-Manville
In my view, every manufacturing company has a moral duty to direct its consumers on the best way to consume their product for optimal benefit. Johns-Manville must have made it clear through various warnings or direction of use for example they could have stated, “Ensure you…, do not…, protect you’re…” and so on just like other products. This is a clear indication that they were not concerned about the health of the users but were just concerned in making huge profits for their own benefit. It is also evident that the quality of their products was not good since they had a lot of dust. They are responsible for ensuring that their products are not hazardous or even if they are, it is reduced to minimum levels.
Case study three
William Panny & Mary Cunningham were Treated Fairly
This people were not treated fairly because they did not have any bad intensions on their actions. This is because of the use of a plot to impeach them as well as remove them from their duties because of rumors. There are also the elements of political tactics that were used and hence they suffered for the actions and deeds that they never deserved. In case of any conflict and allegations, these people were supposed to be taken to a court of law in order to decide whether their actions deserve such treatments as they received.
Carroll, A. & Buchholtz, A. (2008). Business and society: Ethics and stakeholder management. Boulevard: Cengage Learning.