Crystal Manufacturing

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Crystal Manufacturing
Crystal is an innovative method of manufacturing products that are highly specialized and that are required for high precision such as crystal oscillators, crystal filters, quartz microbalance, and filters captive screws. This paper presents a report on the crystal manufacturing of captive screws where the focus is on the material used in the manufacturing process by giving the technical description of the material that make it appropriate for the process. There are various reasons that make manufacturers decide on the material to use in the manufacture of captive screws and these reasons may be either economical, technical or a combination of the two. The report therefore looks at the reasons that guide manufacturers in the choice of materials. Finally, the report gives a description of the manufacturing process and gives a suggestion of alternative manufacturing method.

Materials Technical Description
In the manufacture of captive screw, steel and aluminium alloys are used where the choice of this material depends on their suitability in the manufacturing process. These alloys include alloys 3003 and 1100 and the choice of these materials mainly follows from the physical and chemical properties of the material. These materials were found to be the most appropriate in the manufacture of captive screw since they compliment each other.

To begin with, steel is a hard and a strong material and on the other hand, aluminium is soft and ductile. A combination of these two properties produces a material that is easy to shape and yet a material that is strong enough for its fastening purpose. The materials are also appropriate for the cold forming process that is applied in the manufacturing process.

In the manufacturing of captive screws, the process involves a lot of cutting and shaping of the materials and therefore manufacturers require a material that has the required mechanical property. Aluminium is a ductile material and therefore it can be easily formed into various shapes without breakages. On the other hand, steel is tough and hard and therefore it can resist breakage.

Steel and aluminium are materials that have a high melting point and therefore withstand high temperatures. This makes the material appropriate in the manufacturing process since captive screw requires withstanding high temperature. It is also important that captive screws are more susceptible to cracking under high temperatures and therefore they should be designed in a way that withstand high temperatures. The two metals have high melting point and therefore they can withstand high temperatures. Steel is hard and strong material and on the other hand although aluminium is fairy soft compared to steel it withstands higher temperatures. This property is essential in both the manufacturing process and in the application of the screws on the mother circuit boards. In both situations, the screw is subjected to very high temperatures and therefore temperature resistant material is required.

Electrical conductivity is the next quality that is essential in the manufacture of captive screw. Steel is not a good electrical conductor but aluminium is a better conductor of electricity than steel. A combination of the two materials however makes a material that has the appropriate electrical conductivity properties. Captive screws are attached on the mother circuit boards and therefore electric conductivity is an essential requirement. Both aluminium and steel are shiny greyish in colour and a combination of the two materials at different proportions gives a variety of shades that are appropriate in the production of different varieties of the screws. This variety is necessary for use in a variety of tasks such as fastening items of hardware.

Reasons for Manufacturer's Choice
According to the manufacturers, there are various reasons for their choice of these materials, which are economic as well as manufacturability properties of the material. The economic factors are concerned with the cost factor while the manufacturability factors are concerned with favourable properties of the materials.
In any work of manufacturing the manufacturers, need to consider the end users as much as they consider the manufacturing process. For this reason, the manufacturers need to have a product that is affordable and yet of high quality. The price of the product depends on various factors the input being the main factor. The main reason for the choice of these materials is the cost of the material. The materials used are fairly cheaper than most of the material of the same quality such as copper and nickel. Low cost materials that are of high quality makes manufacturers produce high quality products at a fair price. This makes the screws appropriate for use in various devices.

For manufacturers to produce their products effectively then there has to be availability of raw materials. Steel and aluminium are metals that are available compared to other metals that are not common. The manufacturers therefore choose the material basing on availability because materials that are readily available saves the manufacturers the need to go around looking for the materials. The manufacturers also settle for a material that is readily available in order to cut their production and manufacturing costs.
The manufacturers are also considerate about the environment as required by co-operate and social responsibility role. For this reason, manufacturers will choose a material that is friendly to the environment both during the manufacturing process and on the product. The manufacturers therefore select steel and aluminium over the other materials since producing of the two materials pollutes the environment less as compared to other materials. On the other hand, the products and the by-products of aluminium and steel are less toxic to the environment. The production of these raw materials also requires less processes compared to other materials and therefore they are less harmful to the environment. The manufacturers are therefore concerned about the environment along the whole process that is from the production of the raw materials to completion of the products. The mining process that is involved in the production of these metals is also less complicated and therefore there is less environmental degradation from the process.

In manufacturing of the products, the manufacturers have to consider the availability of raw materials. A readily available material has more economic benefits than a material that is less available because it also reduces the cost of production for the manufacturers since it is available at a fair price. Steel comes from iron, which is a readily available metal as compared to the other complementary materials such as silver. The availability of these materials also ensures that the manufacturers can continue their production work without breakdowns from lack of inputs. The manufacturers of captive screws therefore choose steel and aluminium as the main material in their manufacturing process based on their availability.

The quality of a product determines its strength in the market since customers go for a product that gives them value for their money. Customers also avoid buying unreliable products and therefore their choice for a technological product is based on performance. On the other hand, manufacturers want to produce a product that is appealing to the customers and therefore they manufacture products based on the customer's preference. To add on to that the manufacturers avoid making unreliable products to reduce the extra cost arising from the risk of breakdown before it reaches the market. The materials used in the manufacture of a product determine the level of the product's reliability and therefore the manufacturers have to make a good choice. The choice of aluminium and steel is therefore based on their ability to produce a material that is long lasting and at the same time convenient to use. The reliability of these materials lies in their physical and chemical properties where for example steel is a strong and durable material. On the other hand, aluminium is a corrosive resistant material and a combination of these two factors makes these materials the most suitable for the production of captive screws.
In the manufacturing of a product, the manufacturers are more concerned with their ability to produce the product economically. This makes them consider the quantity that they are able to produce at a given time interval. For the manufacturers to produce captive screws profitably then they have to produce the product in large quantities. In order for manufactures to maintain quantity production then they have to use materials that can be handled easily. This not only makes the manufacturing work easier but it also reduces the production cost. The materials used in the manufacturing process should also require less complicated techniques. Steel and aluminium are materials that can be easily handled, they require less complicated handling techniques, and this makes the two metals suitable for quantity production of captive screws.
The manufactures are also concerned about their technological capabilities, which is determined by the available technology and on the manufacturers' ability to use the technology. The choice of the technology used in the manufacture of captive screw depends on its availability and on the abilities of the manufacturers. The materials used in the manufacturing process also determine the right technology that the manufactures should apply. Most manufactures settles for aluminium and steel as the main manufacturing materials since the two materials require less complicated technologies. The main reason why their technology is less complicated is because the two materials have been used regularly and therefore the technology has developed and improved a lot.

The Manufacturing Process
The method for making captive screws is divided into main stages, which are making of the knob and a ferrule that is attached to the panel. The method is further subdivided into the making of the screw ferrule and the screw interface ferrule where the process begins with the making of the metal base material to form what is referred as the planner sheet. In this process, steel is used and the metal base provides the direction or the format of the resultant screw.
The next process in the manufacture process is the pressing of the base material into a cylindrical shape. In the process, a method referred to as cold forming is applied where the base material is made into cup-shaped items with cylindrical walls. A hole is then made at the bottom of the cup shaped item to produce the knob of the screw and the resultant product is later processed into screw heads.

The next process in the manufacturing process is the attachment of the end material with the screw body, which is referred as the panel attachment. Threads are then added to the trunk of the screw to complete the manufacturing process. Although the process used by the manufacturers of the captive screw is an efficient method, manufacturers are on the look out for methods that are more cost effective. The manufactures are also concerned about the quality and quantity of their products and therefore a change of the manufacturing method can be a good way of enhancing the quality and at the same time maintaining quantity production. An alternative method for the manufacturing of the screw therefore analyzes the raw materials used and the manufacturing process. In the alternative method, the manufacturers should consider the use of copper as a substitute for aluminium. Copper has better chemical and physical properties as compared to aluminium and steel. The process should begin by making of the screw base and in this process; a hydraulic press should be used to make the base more compact.

The trunk of the screw should then be made using copper instead of aluminium and the process should be followed by addition of threads. The trunk of the screw should then be attached to the head of the screw to complete the process.