## Statistics – linguistics

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Statistics – linguistics

Chapter one

Statistics comes with a number of concepts and with their use; they make up the total of the fundamental concept of statistics.  Statistics is mainly used in the calculation of population using samples, and therefore, some of the concepts as applicable in statistics include the population, sampling, and basic probabilities.

Question two

By explanation, an ordinal variable is a fundamental concept in the levels of measurements where the order can matter but the difference in the values may not matter.  An internal variable is a measurement in which the difference in two values is very critical and on ratio variable, some measurements like weight, height and the activities of enzymes are crucial and account for a ratio.  The nominal scale is a kind of measurement that uses labels; where, the measures offer names, the labels or  just a mention of some characteristics; for example, sedimentary rocks.

1. The length of a pause as applicable in a conversation can be said to be an internal variable because it is a measurement of the difference between two variables and length of pause between conversations measures this differences and therefore an internal variable.
2. The rating of words by people like the informants on a certain scale can be said to be ordinal variable, which does not look at the difference but the order matters. Here, 5 is a representative of very pleasant while 1 could mean that the rating is not very good.
3. The presence or the absence of a finite verb in a clause is a nominal interval, and this is the one, which does not consider the presence of the measurements in a particular calculation but takes the whole measurement as most meaningful. Therefore, it may not be possible to attribute the goodness or the badness or a sentence by the number of finite verbs in a sentence but what is of essence is the whole of the meaning as expressed in a sentence.
4. The degree of grammaticality of the sentences given on a scale of 0 to 4 is ordinal variable, and this is because this is a variation and even though the difference may not matter, the order of the values is very crucial. In this case, 4 is a number that is most significant and 0 being the number that does not have a lot of value, but the difference between the two is not significant.
5. The number of the sentences that an informant can remember after hearing about them is an interval variable, which is the measurement that analyses the difference between variables.

Chapter three

This chapter is about the measures that are used to get the central tendency as well as the variability and specifically in measuring the central tendency, three most concepts are applicable, and these are; the mean, the median and the mode. The mean generally is the average of numbers, which is calculated by dividing the sum of all the figures presented with the number of figures.  The median is the central figure or the number that is at the centre and this is done just by picking the central figure when the number of figures is uneven.   However, if the numbers of the figures presented are even, the calculation of median is done by adding the sum of the two most central figures and dividing by two. The mode on the other hand is a count of the biggest appearing number in a sequence or in a particular arrangement of numbers.  For example, if in 10 figures, the number 2 appears more than any other number, then the mode in that sequence is 2 because of its appearances.  The other is the measure of variability, which comes with a number of concepts such as the range, the mean deviation, the variance and the standard deviation.

Question one

1. (a) The most typical value can be measured using the mode because as per the explanations, the mode is the value or the figure that occurs most in a sequence and in a sequence of 10 figures, if 2 is the most common number, then, it is the most typical value and the mode. (b) The spread or the variability of the values that are in a set of data is the variance, which is generally a measure of how numbers are spread out among each other.

(ii)  In the selection of measure of central tendency, some of the factors that are taken into consideration are the level of the measurement of the variable that is concerned; that is, the nominal, the ordinal, the interval or the ration.  The shape of the frequency distribution and lastly the reason or the purpose of the figures that are to be collected also determines it.  For the variability, the use of the variation data that is to be obtained by using a number of these like the mean deviation, the range and the standard deviation is largely determined by the use; for example, the standard deviation, the mean deviation and the ranges could be used for calculating population in a country.

Question five

In the two sentences, the most viable measure of central tendency is the mode because as the data can be seen, there are a number of figures, which are the same, and therefore this measure can be gotten.

 Sentence one Sentence two Figure Number Mode Figure Number Mode 1 23 1 1 9 2 2 17 2 15 3 6 3 13 4 2 4 10 5 1 5 1 6 0 6 0 7 7 7 0

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